Productivity in Ramadan Study: Economic Context

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Productivity in Ramadan 2011 Report

Work-hour Changes & Economic Impact:

In the Muslim-majority OIC countries, the month of Ramadan sees a reduction or an adjustment of work hours.  There are varying instances on work hours during Ramadan.  In some cases, work reduction or adjustment is government mandated.  Some countries leave scheduling at the discretion of the employers, and others mandate government office hours, while permitting the private sector to use its own discretion.

The purpose of this working-hours brief analysis is to provide a broader perspective to this report by evaluating the varying work-hour change practices across OIC countries, and their economic impact.  The evaluation highlights the different approaches in creating a balanced and flexible Ramadan work schedule.

Definition—Adjustment  vs. Reduction: An adjustment in work hours means the working day starts early (e.g. in Indonesia) and finishes early. A reduction means that the number of scheduled work hours is reduced.

Ramadan work-hour practices:  A selection of eleven OIC countries was evaluated for general differences in approach toward Ramadan work hours.  This included the six GCC countries (Saudi Arabia, Qatar, Oman, UAE, Kuwait, Bahrain), Egypt, Turkey, Pakistan, Indonesia, and Malaysia.  The table below shows each country’s Ramadan hour practices:

[table id=22 /]

Economic impact:  Conducting a thorough economic impact assessment of Ramadan work hour reduction is beyond the scope of this study.  However, we have used a basic approach using national GDP-per-hour-per day to determine the financial impact of reduced hours on each of the eleven OIC economies.

For those countries who average two hour workday reduction (GCC, Pakistan, Egypt), the total hours lost are approximately forty, which is essentially equivalent to one week of economic productivity.  Percentage-wise, this averages to a 7.7% loss in such a country’s monthly GDP value.   For those who average a one hour workday reduction (Indonesia, Malaysia), the total lost hours are twenty, which averages to 3.8% loss in those economies’ average monthly GDP value.  This assessment does not consider end of Ramadan Eid holidays.

Using this evaluation, the chart below shows estimated GDP impact to the select economies of the OIC. Although a detailed analysis of economic impact would have to be undertaken in order to understand the full complexity of the Ramadan dynamic, the above assessment does show that the economies suffer roughly 4% in monthly GDP per hour of work reduction per day.

Estimated Loss in monthly GDP due to reduced Ramadan hours
Estimated Loss in monthly GDP due to reduced Ramadan hours

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Productivity in Ramadan Study: Religious Context

RELIGIOUS  CONTEXT:

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Productivity in Ramadan 2011 Report

DISCLAIMER: We present here select Quranic and prophetic statements in regards to Ramadan and productivity with sources referenced.  We are not Sharia scholars or that this section has not been reviewed by any scholarly body for comprehensiveness.

 

From a spiritual perspective, the purpose of the Muslim fast has been articulated in the following verse of the Qur’an:

“O ye who believe! Fasting is prescribed to you as it was prescribed to those before you, that ye may (learn) self-restraint.”[1]

Moreover, the Qur’an mentions that fasting is not meant to be a burden or difficulty for the person, Allah says:

“Ramadan is the (month) in which was sent down the Qur’an, as a guide to mankind, also clear (Signs) for guidance and judgment (between right and wrong). So every one of you who is present (at his home) during that month should spend it in fasting, but if anyone is ill, or on a journey, the prescribed period (should be made up) by days later. Allah intends every facility for you; He does not want to put to difficulties. (He wants you) to complete the prescribed period, and to glorify Him in that He has guided you; and perchance ye shall be grateful.”[2]

Fasting is not meant to be a physical exercise of self-restraint, but a spiritual exercise of self-restraint from bad deeds and all that goes against the teachings of Islam.

The Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) said, “Whoever does not give up false statements (i.e. telling lies), and evil deeds, and speaking bad words to others, Allah is not in need of his (fasting) leaving his food and drink.” [3]

The Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings be upon him) emphasized and encouraged extra worship during the month.  He said:

“Ramadan has come to you. (It is) a month of blessing, in which Allah covers you with blessing, for He sends down Mercy, decreases sins and answers prayers. In it, Allah looks at your competition (in good deeds), and boasts about you to His angels. So show Allah goodness from yourselves, for the unfortunate one is he who is deprived in (this month) of the mercy of Allah, the Mighty, the Exalted.”[4]

These encouraging injunctions to increase worship need also to be balanced by other similar injunctions from the Qur’an and Sayings of Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) that enjoin the Muslim worker to take care of his or her responsibilities and perform duties with utmost care:

Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) said:
“God loves that when any one of you does a job, he does it perfectly.”[5]

He (peace be upon him) also said: “He whom we have appointed for a job and have provided with livelihood, then whatever he appropriates beyond this is ill-gotten.”[6]

Historically, Ramadan was a productive time for the advancement of the Ummah, “It is in this noble month that many great events occurred in the history of Islam like the victory of faith over disbelief in the Battle of Badr, the conquest of Makkah, Battle of ‘Ayn Jaaloot and other decisive battles.”[7]

Given the added demands of fasting and extra worship during Ramadan, it is clear why observant Muslim workers may find it difficult to balance Ramadan’s spiritual demands with work and family responsibilities.

As for employers, how far should they go to accommodate their Muslim workers’ spiritual demands?  Saif Bin Rashid Al Gabiri, Director of Ifta and Research Administration in the Dubai Department of Islamic Affairs and Awqaf, summarizes the issue succinctly: “The month of Ramadan is a month of performing rituals, praying and fasting. However, working is part of worshipping. The Sharia does not force the employer to reduce working hours. There is no clause that says working hours must be reduced. On the other hand, Muslims must get time to fulfill their religious duties.”[8]

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[1] Holy Qur’an, Al-Baqara, Chapter #2, Verse #183, Yusuf Ali Translation.

[2] Holy Qur’an, Al-Baqara, Chapter #2, Verse #185, Yusuf Ali Translation.

[3] Sahih Bukhari, Book #73, Hadith #83.

[4] Narrated by Tabarani.

[5] Bayhaqi’s Shu’ab al-iman by Suyuti, v.1, p. 75

[6] Abu Dawud, v. 2, p.121

[7] Ramadan and Eeman (Faith) by ‘Alî Abd-ur-Rahmân al-Hudhaifî, Islamic Network:  http://www.islaam.net/main/display.php?id=369&category=130

[8] “Is work during Ramadan worship?” Spero News, accessed August 22, 2011, http://www.speroforum.com/a/2064/Is-work-during-Ramadan-worship

Productivity in Ramadan: RESULTS (Spirituality)

RESULTS (Spirituality):

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Productivity in Ramadan 2011 Report

How many are fasting?

 

98% of the survey respondents said they planned to fast the entire month of Ramadan.  This percentage was consistent across Muslim majority OIC countries and non-OIC countries.

This response shows a surprisingly high percentage of adherence to fasting, as it is commonly noted that other religious obligations throughout the year (e.g. five daily prayers) are not practiced consistently by all Muslims.   On the one hand, the response reflects the importance Muslims give to the month of Ramadan and the ritual of fasting.  Conversely, this may also be reflective of survey response bias as those who voluntarily participate in the survey may be those who are actively practicing Islam.

Given this response, it is safe to evaluate the rest of the responses as given by Muslims who fast during the month of Ramadan.

Question:  Do you intend to fast during the upcoming Ramadan?
Question: Do you intend to fast during the upcoming Ramadan?

What were the most practiced activities during last Ramadan?

 

From among select mandatory or recommended religious practices during Ramadan, the most common activity was offering the five daily prayers.  88% of respondents said they prayed the obligatory five daily prayers during the prior Ramadan.  Around half of the respondents said they gave extra charity during Ramadan.  Half of the respondents also said they read the Qur’an daily and about the same said they attended the extra nightly congregational prayers (Taraweeh) regularly.

The activities that were least practiced were praying at least three daily prayers at a mosque (22%), donating Iftar to the poor once a week (17%), and performing I’tikaaf on the last ten nights of the month (13%).

These responses highlight a high level of spiritual activity taken on by Muslims during Ramadan that are both personal and social or communal, evident by the fact that half of the Muslims increase their charitable giving during Ramadan.

Question: Which of the following did you do during the last Ramadan?
Question: Which of the following did you do during the last Ramadan?

What was the level of satisfaction with Ramadan 
spirituality from last year?

The majority of survey respondents (65%) felt they could have done much better spiritually during Ramadan 2010.  Meanwhile, 17% were very disappointed with the quality of their spirituality. However, 18% were very satisfied with their efforts and are hopeful that Allah (Subhanahu wa Ta’ala ) would accept their deeds.

Even having performed a high level of spiritual activity (see previous question), a high percentage of respondents wished they had done more during Ramadan.  This can be inferred as not just a disappointment, but a desire to improve Ramadan spirituality in the future (i.e., striving for personal improvement, excellence in prayers, etc.).

Question:  How satisfied were you with your Ramadan spirituality from last year?
Question: How satisfied were you with your Ramadan spirituality from last year?

What are the biggest challenges faced in strengthening
spirituality during Ramadan?

 

The biggest challenge Muslims faced in observing Ramadan spiritual activities was their struggle to read the Qur’an regularly (66%).  The second biggest challenge was “lack of focus during worship” (53%), closely followed by “not being able to attend Taraweeh prayers regularly” (47%).  Other areas included praying regularly at a mosque, maintaining family responsibilities, being consistent in prayer, work inflexibility, and maintaining community responsibilities.

The variety of challenges Muslims struggle with to improve their Ramadan spirituality, as shown in this response, reflects added pressure Muslims have during Ramadan.

Question:  What are your biggest challenges to develop spiritually during Ramadan?
Question: What are your biggest challenges to develop spiritually during Ramadan?

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